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Eastern White Pine

Terpenes

Terpenes are a varied group of organic compounds found in many plants, particularly in conifers like Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus). These compounds contribute to the distinct aromas of plants and flowers. Terpenes are known for their unique scents and complex structures.

Here's a quick list of some terpenes found in high percentages.

A-pinene, B-pinene, Mycrene, Germacrene-D, B-caryophyllene, B-phallandrene, Camphene, Limonene, Anticopalic Acid.

Suramin

Suramin was created by the German pharmaceutical company Bayer in 1904 from a dye called trypan blue, commonly used in laboratories for cell staining.

Trypan blue is derived from toluidine, that is, any of several isomeric bases, C14H16N2, derived from toluene. Trypan blue is so-called because it can kill trypanosomes, the parasites that cause sleeping sickness.

The compound Toluene, was first isolated in 1837 through a distillation of pine oil by Pierre Joseph Pelletier and Filip Neriusz Walter, who named it rétinnaphte.

These connections indicate the presence of suramin as a derivative of pine however it should be noted that I have not found any source showing its direct presence as a chemical compound.

Polyphenols

Polyphenols found in Pinus strobus (Eastern White Pine) encompass a range of compounds with diverse chemical structures and functions within the plant. These compounds are integral to the plant's defense mechanisms against pathogens, UV radiation, fungi, bacteria, parasites and herbivores, and they contribute to the color, taste, and overall survival of the plant.

Here are some of the polyphenols known to be present in Pinus strobus.

Flavonoids

Catechins: Belonging to the flavan-3-ol class, catechins are a type of flavonoid that contributes to the antioxidant capacity of plants. They are involved in UV filtration and have a role in plant pigmentation and cell cycle regulation.

Epicatechin: Another flavan-3-ol, similar to catechin, known for its antioxidant properties.

Taxifolin: A flavanonol that has been identified in pine species and is known for its antioxidant activity.

Quercetin: A flavonol, quercetin is a pigment that contributes to the coloration of many plants and plays a role in plant growth, flowering, and defense mechanisms against environmental stressors.

Kaempferol: Another flavonol, kaempferol contributes to the color and UV protection in plants. It is involved in modulating the activity of enzymes and signaling pathways within plant cells.

Phenolic Acids

Ferulic Acid: A hydroxycinnamic acid, ferulic acid is involved in the cross-linking of plant cell wall polymers, which contributes to the structural integrity of the plant.

Gallic Acid: As a hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid is involved in the defense against UV radiation and pathogens. It is a part of hydrolyzable tannins and plays a role in plant metabolism.

Stilbenes: These are typical phenolic compounds mainly found in the Pinus species, including Pinus strobus. Pinosylvin and its derivatives, such as dihydropinosylvin monomethylether (DPME) and pinosylvin monomethylether (PME)

Lignans

Secoisolariciresinol: A plant lignan involved in the defense against herbivores and pathogens. Lignans are part of the plant's secondary metabolism and contribute to the structural components through their incorporation into the cell wall.

Tannins are large polyphenolic compounds known for their ability to bind and precipitate proteins. They are classified into two main groups: hydrolyzable tannins and condensed tannins (or proanthocyanidins).

Proanthocyanidins (a type of condensed tannin): Contribute to astringency, color, and protection of the plant.

In Conclusion > These polyphenols contribute to the complex chemical ecology of Pinus strobus, affecting its interactions with the environment, other organisms, and its overall survival and fitness. Their specific roles within the plant often involve protection against abiotic and biotic stressors and participation in the plant's normal growth and development processes.

Shikimic Acid

Shikimic acid is part of the tree's metabolic processes and contributes to its defense mechanisms against pests and diseases. The presence of shikimic acid in Eastern White Pine and other plants can vary based on several factors, including the plant's age, the time of year, and environmental conditions.

Shikimic acid plays a crucial role in the shikimate pathway, which is a metabolic route fundamental for the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, tannins, and lignans, which are types of polyphenols. Thus, while shikimic acid itself is not classified as a polyphenol, it is vital for the production of a wide range of polyphenolic compounds in plants.

Vitamins & Minerals

The needles are reported to be extremely high in Vitamin C, with some sources indicating that they contain five times the amount of Vitamin C per volume compared to oranges. This makes them an excellent source of this essential vitamin.

In terms of minerals, an X-ray microanalytical study has shown that Pinus strobus needles contain silica, especially concentrated in the tips of the needles.

Enzymes

Eastern White Pine (Pinus strobus) contains various compounds with enzymatic properties, including:

  1. Polyphenol oxidase: An enzyme involved in the oxidation of phenolic compounds, which may contribute to the plant's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
  2. Peroxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of various compounds, potentially involved in the plant's defense against pathogens and oxidative stress.
  3. Lipase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes lipids, potentially involved in the plant's energy metabolism and storage.
  4. Amylase: An enzyme that breaks down starch into simple sugars, potentially involved in the plant's carbohydrate metabolism.
  5. Protease: An enzyme that hydrolyzes proteins, potentially involved in the plant's defense against pathogens and protein degradation.
  6. Flavonoid O-glycosyltransferase: An enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of flavonoid glycosides, which may contribute to the plant's antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
  7. Terpene synthases: Enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenes, which may contribute to the plant's defense against pathogens and insects.

Piney Science

A constantly evolving collection of fascinating scientific studies and articles delving into the ingredients contained in the Eastern White Pine.

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These independent links are for informational & ingredient transparency purposes only and Quintessence makes no claims based on the contents.

These extracts are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. 🙊 They are intended to unite community and spread wellbeing amongst family and friends

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Lady's Thumb

Chalcones

2'-hydroxy-3',4',6'-trimethoxychalcone, pashanone, and pinostrobin chalcone.

Flavanones

Pinostrobin 💚 (also found in the heartwood of Pinus Strobus), 6-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxyflavanone , onysilin, and 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone.

Flavonol

3-O-methylgalangin

Diarylheptanoids

1,7-diphenylhept-4-en-3-one, dihydroyashabushiketol, yashabushidiol B, and 3-oxo-α-ionol-glucoside

Stilbene

Persilben

Flavonoids

catechin, epicatechin, hyperoside, rutin, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-L-rhamnoside, and kaempferol-3-O-glucoside